Necessity are essential elements for human being. The absence of these elements may cause harm and damage to human life. The examples of necessities such as shelter, food, and clothes.
The necessities are further classified by the scholars into five elements of preservations. The objective of Islamic rulings is mainly to protect these five elements from any harms. These preservations are known as:
- Protection of Faith or religion (din)
- Protection of Life (nafs)
- Protection of Lineage (nasl)
- Protection of Intellect (‘aql)
- Protection of Property (mal)
Some example of acts that are related to the preservations of the above are defending Islam against enemies’ attack (faith), build the hospital (lineage), provide education (Intellect), and distribution of wealth in fairly manner through Zakat (property).
These are the objectives which are must and basic for the establishment of welfare in this world and the world hereafter in the sense that if they are ignored then the coherence and order cannot be established and fasad (chaos and disorder) will prevail in this world and there will be obvious loss in the world hereafter.
Needs are less essential for human life compare to daruriyat. These are requirements for human being to live without facing difficulties. However, the lack of any of these needs is not a matter of life and death, especially on an individual basis.
Examples of needs are marriage, communication tools, healthy food, and means of transportation. Islam encourages and regulates these needs.
Luxuries are complementary and desirable factors that give perfection and additional values to human life. Islam encourages us to achieve these purposes and to have a better life. Nevertheless, Islam teaches us to pursue these goals in correct manners.
The Examples of luxuries are branded outfit, luxury car, bungalows etc.